The Mining industry is a long established sector within the UK economy and has often required significant R&D in order to continue in its world leading status. In more recent times the mining and metals industry faces significant challenges with increased demand from the developing world counterbalanced by an overall trend to lower ore grades and with high pressure to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. To overcome these challenges, many companies are engaging in high level R&D to keep mines economically viable whilst extracting ores from existing sites becomes harder and harder.